The Spanish Tragedy (RLE Responding to Fascism) (Routledge Library Editions: Responding to Fascism)

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If you have previously obtained access with your personal account, Please log in. If you previously purchased this article, Log in to Readcube. Log out of Readcube. Click on an option below to access. Log out of ReadCube. This paper is a response to the rise of populism across and beyond the Western world.

Volume 16 , Issue 1. The full text of this article hosted at iucr. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username. Martin Kemp Corresponding Author E-mail address: martin.

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Ideologies and States (2): Extremism

The RSI became so desperate for soldiers that it granted convicts freedom if they would join the army and the sentence of death was imposed on anyone who opposed being conscripted. Borghese held no allegiance to Mussolini and even suggested that he would take him prisoner if he could. During the winter of —, armed Italians were on both sides of the Gothic Line.

Ep. 1474 What Is Fascism?

On the Allied side were four Italian groups of volunteers from the old Italian army. These Italian volunteers were equipped and trained by the British. On the Axis side were four RSI divisions. This was a combined German and Italian offensive against the 92nd Infantry Division. The battle was fought in the Apennines. While limited in scale, this was a successful offensive and the RSI units did their part.

The Italians successfully halted the United States division's advance.

However, the situation continued to deteriorate for the Axis forces on Gothic Line. In the end of that month, the last remaining troops of RSI were bottled up along with two Wehrmacht Divisions at Collecchio by 1st Brazilian Division being forced to surrender after some days of fighting. On 29 April, Graziani surrendered and was present at Caserta when a representative of German General Heinrich von Vietinghoff-Scheel signed the unconditional instrument of surrender for all Axis forces in Italy, but since the Allies had never recognised the RSI Graziani's signature was not required at Caserta.

In , after the withdrawal of all German fighter units in the attempt to stop the increased Allied offensive on the German mainland, ANR fighter groups were left alone and heavily outnumbered to face the massive Allied air offensive over Northern Italy. In the operation time of and , the ANR managed to shoot down Allied aircraft with the loss of in action. This was because the bulk of the Italian navy was ordered to steam to Malta at the time of the armistice, out of reach of the Germans and the RSI.

The Black Brigade was formed from the new fascist party members both young and old. Both units fought alongside Nazi and Schutzstaffel SS counterparts in an extensive anti-partisan war. The Black Brigades committed many atrocities in their fight against the Italian resistance movement and political enemies. During the preceding twenty years of Fascist association with the Savoy monarchy of the Kingdom of Italy, the Fascists had been restricted in some of their actions by the monarchy.


The formation of the RSI allowed Mussolini to at last be the official head of an Italian state and it allowed the Fascists to return to their earlier republican stances. Most prominent figures of post-war Italian far-right politics parliamentary or extraparliamentary were in some way associated with the experience of the RSI. Most of the 8, Italian Jews who died under the Holocaust were killed during the 20 months of the Salo Regime. Initially, existing Italian issues were overprinted with a fasces , or the initials "G.

Later the government designed and printed three series, all of which are very common. Banknotes in 50, , , and lire denomination were printed by the Republic. As issuer, the country was not mentioned on them, but rather only the Bank of Italy. It uses the source material as an allegory ; the atrocities in the movie did not actually happen, while most of the choices of milieus, clothing, uniforms, weapons and other details are historically correct.

Bernardo Bertolucci 's Novecento set his story in Emilia , being at the time a province of the Italian Social Republic, even though this is never mentioned in the movie. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Coat of arms. Main article: Fall of the Fascist regime in Italy. Part of a series on the. Prehistoric Italy Etruscan civilization 12th—6th c.

BC Magna Graecia 8th—3rd c.

Sources and Bibliography

Ancient Rome. Early kingdom. Italy in the Middle Ages Byzantine reconquest of Italy 6th—8th c. Early modern. Italian Renaissance 14th—16th c. Young Italy Thousand. By topic.

What was the influence of Nietzsche's thought on Spanish Fascism? | Elettra Bilibio -

War flag of the Italian Social Republic. Main article: National Republican Army. RSI soldiers deployed to the Battle for Anzio.

RSI soldier cleaning his weapon Gothic line , Main article: Aeronautica Nazionale Repubblicana. Main article: Marina Nazionale Repubblicana. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich. University of Nebraska Press paperback edition.

University of Nebraska Press, The Last Secret of Mussolini. Il Cerchio. Taylor Trade.

The seduction of unreason: The intellectual romance with fascism from Nietzsche to postmodernism R Wolin. Fascism: A history R Eatwell.

The seizure of power: fascism in Italy, A Lyttelton. Work ideology and consensus under Italian fascism L Passerini. Reproductions of banality: fascism, literature, and French intellectual life AY Kaplan. Varieties of fascism E Weber.

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Body fascism: Salvation in the technology of physical fitness B Pronger. Fascism in Spain, — SG Payne. Fascism: a reader's guide: analyses, interpretations, bibliography W Laqueur. Fascism as political religion E Gentile. Fascism: Past, present, future W Laqueur.