Orange Groves (Book I)

Book Club Meeting in the Florida Orange Groves
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Source: SunBase, Florida. A by-product made either by milling the whole fresh fruit or by mixing juice concentrate with milled peel. This product is used as an ingredient for fruit drinks. Because comminuted citrus base has a stronger flavour and provides more cloud than pure orange juice, it imparts a good orange flavour to fruit drinks of low fruit content. It was originally developed in the UK. This is ruptured juice sacs and segment walls recovered after the extraction process. It can be added back to juice and juice drinks to provide mouthfeel and give a natural appearance to the product.

A product reclaimed from washing the pulp stream. Pulp wash contains soluble fruit solids and is often used in fruit drink formulations as a source of sugars and fruit solids.

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It is also used as a clouding agent to provide body and mouthfeel because of its pectin content. If permitted by law, pulp wash is sometimes added to juice in-line before concentration. The oil extracted from orange peel. Some peel oil is added to concentrate after evaporation prior to long-term storage. It masks or slows the development of a cardboard off-taste during storage.

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Peel oil is sometimes used by blending houses and juice packers for extra additions to concentrate. Essence comprises the volatile components recovered from the evaporation process. These are separated in an aqueous phase and an oil phase. The water-soluble compounds essence aroma or water phase essence are sometimes added back to the concentrate or juice product. The oil phase essence oil is different from peel oil and contains more of the fruit flavour. Essence oil is also used as add-back to concentrate. Both aroma and essence oil are raw materials used by flavour companies for the manufacture of flavour mixtures for the beverage and other food industries.

A liquid recovered by washing the core material ejected from the JBT juice extractors. This rag and seed material is very high in limonin.

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If the resulting core wash is too bitter it may pass through a debittering process, keeping its other characteristics similar to pulp wash. It is concentrated and used as a flavour component and clouding agent in beverage formulations. The major component of peel oil. Industrial d-limonene is recovered as a by-product from waste peel in the feed mill.

It is sold for use in the plastics industry as a raw material in the manufacture of synthetic resins and adhesives. It has also found use as a solvent, for instance in the electronics industry. Dry pellets made from the material left over from juice processing. The waste stream consists of peel, rag, unrecovered pulp and seeds. This residue is dewatered and dried to form concentrated fodder for cattle and sheep. The syrup produced from the concentration of liquor pressed from the wet waste stream. It is used in producing animal feed pellets or as raw material for the production of citrus alcohol by fermentation.

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A less common by-product of fruit peel. Pectin can be extracted from the peel for use in jam, marmalade, jelly and preserve production. Regions contributing to the majority of world orange juice production are shown in Figure 1. The world orange juice export market is dominated by Brazil.

American exports are quite small due to the large US domestic market for orange juice. Source: USDA. In the past, the US was a significant net importer of juice. However, increased juice production in Florida in the s following new tree planting caused national net juice imports to decline. Low fruit availability and processing yields resulted in the lowest juice production for 20 years. The majority of Brazilian oranges go to processing. However, the share of fruit sold in the domestic fresh fruit market is increasing thanks to rising per capita income.

Brazilian oranges tend to be smaller, less round and have thicker peel than those grown for processing in, for example, Florida. The normal processing season for Brazilian juice plants is from June through to early February. More than half of the plantings are late varieties Valencia and Natal. Some citrus varieties Hamlin and Valencia have a biennial cycle that leads to additional cyclic fluctuations in orange output.

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The variation in yield per tree obtained during recent harvest seasons is shown in Figure 1. As a consequence, trees in a grove bear fruit of differing ripeness at any given time. The most important varieties and their harvesting seasons are:. Since fruit in a specific grove is gathered at one picking, the harvested crop will vary in maturity.

This variation in fruit ripeness forces the processor to make compromises in the juice extraction process that affect both the quality and yield of juice produced. Nevertheless, the processor can modify process conditions and use essence recovery and juice blending to compensate for variations in fruit to produce juice concentrate of consistent uniformity. Most juice in Brazil is processed into concentrate that is exported in large volumes. It is sold domestically and exported to North America and Europe.

The removal of sick trees and abandonment of groves has seen the commercial tree inventory drop by a third since Source: Florida Department of Citrus. A combination of climatic conditions, tree variety and soil conditions results in fruit that has a low appeal to the fresh fruit market but produces very high quality juice. The skin is not uniform in colour and is often quite green or yellow. The peel is fairly difficult to remove, which can lead to consumer rejection.

However, the round shape and thin peel of Florida oranges make them ideal for mechanical extraction systems.

During the early part of the season the orange juice is light in colour and has a low oil content. In late-season, the juice has a stronger colour and higher oil content. Seasonal variations occur from year to year, depending on the weather. The round shape and thin peel of Florida oranges make them ideal for mechanical dejuicing systems. Climatic conditions in Florida are such that the bloom occurs uniformly and during a very short period, usually two or three weeks.

The high level of grove management includes irrigation and intensive pest and weed control.

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Moreover, uniform fruit quality enables the processor to select the optimum processing conditions for the fruit harvested each day. Distances between juice production and consumption are relatively short. California is the second largest orange-producing area in the US as regards fruit quantity and the leading supplier of oranges to the fresh fruit market. The dominant sweet orange variety in California is Navel, a seedless variety, followed by Valencia.

Both are grown primarily for the fresh fruit market. Navel orange juice has the peculiarity of developing a bitter taste after processing. Citrus growers in California are vigilant towards HLB, also known as the citrus greening disease. The psyllid vector is present in the state and infected plants have been identified in residential areas. However, as of the end of the disease had not been detected in commercial orange groves. Oranges are grown in several states. Orange-growing areas often experience a shortage of investment money and difficulty in achieving effective grove management.

This leads to variations in crop size and fruit quality from year to year.

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HLB is a potential threat also to Mexican orange growers. The bacterium has been confirmed in vector insects in several states but has not yet directly impacted citrus harvests. In years with short orange supply, high prices in the domestic fresh fruit market result in less fruit going to processing.

This region includes several areas of small but increasing orange cultivation and orange juice production.