HBV can be transmitted through a percutaneous injury such as a needlestick or cut with a sharp object , through contact with mucous membranes, non-intact skin with HBV-positive blood, or other bodily fluids.
Although blood is the most efficient vehicle of infection, infectious HBV has been found in other body fluids, including bile, nasopharyngeal secretions, saliva, and sweat. Prior infection with hepatitis C does not protect against later infection. To prevent HBV or HCV infection, dental personnel should follow standard precautions, which include wearing barrier precautions e.
Employees should immediately report exposure incidents to the employer to permit timely medical follow-up. In the event of an exposure incident e. Patient medical histories can assist in the identification of those potentially infected with viral hepatitis. Dental health care personnel must implement proper infection control measures when treating hepatitis-positive patients, as for any patient, but should also create a welcoming and nonjudgmental environment for all patients.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis--United States , Department of Health and Human Services Accessed March 6, Updated U. Accessed March 7, Department of Health and Human Services.
Dental considerations in patients with liver disease. J Clin Exp Dent.
J Infect Dis ; 1 Hepatitis C. Most importantly, they greatly reduce the risk of the complications that hepatitis B can cause such as liver cirrhosis and liver cancer. Transmission: hepatitis C is spread through blood-to-blood contact. The most common modes of infection include unsafe injection practices, inadequate sterilisation of medical equipment and unscreened blood and blood products. It can also be transmitted through certain sexual practises where blood is involved.
Whether it can be transmitted sexually without the presence of blood remains unclear. If it does happen it appears to be extremely rare although the risk may be increased by the presence of other sexually transmitted infections. Prevention: currently there is no vaccination for hepatitis C. To reduce risk of exposure, it is therefore necessary to avoid sharing needles and other items such as toothbrushes, razors or nail scissors with an infected person. Treatment: treatment can cure hepatitis C infection.
Until recently treatment hs involved a combination of interferon, generally pegylated, long-lasting interferon, and ribavirin but there is increasing use of potent direct acting antiviral drugs. Prevention: hepatitis D only occurs in people who are already infected with the hepatitis B virus. People who are not already infected with hepatitis B can therefore prevent hepatitis D infection by getting vaccinated against hepatitis B.
Avoid sharing needles and other items such as toothbrushes, razors or nail scissors with an infected person. Treatment: treatment for hepatitis D consists of interferon but it is not very effective. Transmission: like hepatitis A, hepatitis E is mainly transmitted through eating contaminated food or drinking contaminated water. Outbreaks generally occur where there is a lack of safe water and poor sanitation. Prevention: currently there is a vaccine to prevent hepatitis E, but it is not widely available. Reduce the risk of exposure to hepatitis E by practicing good hygiene and sanitation, and avoiding drinking water that has come from a potentially unsafe source.
Treatment: there is no treatment for hepatitis E but people usually recover by themselves.
It can, however, be fatal in some cases. The information on this website is intended to support, rather than replace, consultation with a healthcare professional.
Viral hepatitis is liver inflammation due to a viral infection. It may present in acute form as a recent infection with relatively rapid onset, or in chronic form. Viral hepatitis has emerged as a major public health problem throughout the world affecting several hundreds of millions of people. Viral hepatitis is a cause of .
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